April 25th, 2008

John ColeDr. LarochelleFSEM: Writing Ecology: Literature and Environment in the US and Latin AmericaApril 22, 2008Final Paper            Generating a flustering uproar to the direction environmental focus in daily life has declined, environmentalist are concerned with the future of the plant. Influential writers such as Walt Whitman and Andres Bello display in dramatic fashion their opinions, advocating for the preservation of the elemental presence of the non-human world in the lives of the vast public and rallying against the punishment capital has put upon the environment, both Whitman and Bello construct clear cut notions of the significance through a diverse presentation of vocalism. Whitman, pouring his opinionated assembly of diction in an organized enlightening text, which conjures the thought processes necessary for the development of personal opinion of the reader. However, the elusive presence in Whitman’s text is absent in comparison to the hot tempered and flavorful opinions of Bello, who adds a distinctly bold template to his writing. Theory and desire may coincide but the presentation seems able to be somewhat based on personal background and location as each writer could be inflicted by some nurturing cultural influence. Collectively their preaching’s combining with one another place a profound significance on the natural experience and the need to construe more weight behind the arguments focusing on protection issues. Together their out reaching opinions fell upon fire from foreign criticism as presentation left bitter results on the text in its entirety, as cultural implications affected the acceptability of these pieces.              In theory Bello and Whitman depict the simplicity of being in the wilderness and the gratifying motives for the direct experience. Preaching how developing society is so absorbed that it has forgotten how much is like a lost paradise. Bello states “Go breathe the mountain air, that gives lost vigor to the tired body, and retards fretful old age, and tinges pink the face of beauty,” (Bello 135) which stresses capturing experience through the simplest connection to the non-human world. That society and cultural normality’s have overwhelmed us as a species due to the complexities placed by ourselves, uttering the simple joy which nature has provided us through its vast wilderness landscapes that support our existence.  Using the indigenous people as an example implying that “The abundance and easy way of life are celebrated, and the land is represented as providing everything the indigenous people need to live healthy lives,” (Stoetzer). Prior to the environmentalist movement Whitman realizes the same mindset that Andres Bello wants his audience to escape from. That societies focus has inhibited itself from altering the blue prints for the near future as “One of the Nations of many nations, the smallest the same and the largest the same,” (Whitman 16). That improvement and advancement had securely locked the attention of earth’s population and no matter location or cultural background. The object would stay the same, leading the majority in a zombie like essence for the materialistic desires unaware of the implications that are presented by such luxuries. As Bello would later state “… recognize the joy that beckons from the simple farmer’s home, and spurn vain luxury, false brilliance, and the city’s evil idleness!” (Bello 53).  Bello uses his strong and decisive diction to portray his voice in his opinion how society is down grading in its so called evolution over time. A farmer though simplistic in material values in comparison to city life, ultimately shares the insurmountable joy of living and being surrounded by nature as he works the land.              In correlation to these two writers they have some unique basis for their inspiration as they both differ in background and location. Walt Whitman was born on May 31, 1819 in West Hills, Huntington Township, New York was one of eight children in the Whitman household. Growing up he attended a public school in Brooklyn before dropping out and goes into the work world as an office boy for a lawyer and doctor. From there he had a variety of occupations which connected him with politics, editing and writing. For most of his life he was riddled with illnesses and medically hard times but was able to continue his ways of being in the public eye. He would speak at lectures, mainly dealing with President Abraham Lincoln and his assassination. Eventually moving to Washington D.C. another city environment for Whitman who again took up make shift jobs doing whatever it took to support himself. Whitman unfortunately faced dealing with the deaths of his family members as brothers passed away. With the breakdown of his chronology it’s obvious to see the rising stress which Whitman must have went through in fact its reported at some point he fell victim to depression. Thus leaving him sheering for some escape from a rigorous life of uncertainty and hardship, in turn laying the template for the publishing Leaves of Grass as a relieving expression of his feelings and thoughts. Whereas Andres Bello who was born in Caracas, Venezuela on November 29, 1782; grew up in a significant economic and political growth. He was well educated for his time period having studied Latin and Philosophy at the University of Caracas, earning a bachelor’s degree in 1800. His abilities land him in various occupations like Whitman, getting involved with editing major newspapers and taking positions within the Venezuelan government. In such like Whitman who faced the Civil War in the U.S., Bello was faced by the French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, which collectively rocked the political atmosphere in Venezuela.  Bello also shared his fair share of hardships as his wife and daughter died in 1822. Later he would be accused of betraying the revolution, driving him from ever returning to his home land even after those who he had supposedly betrayed had passed away. Eventually those rumors of betrayal where slowly proven to be false but even then he did not return to Venezuela. Though one key aspect about Bello was that through his knowledge and abilities with multiple languages he was able to connect closer ties to England and other European countries. “The extraordinary work of this true scholar still echoes in our own times and radiates his beneficial influence,” (Stoetzer). Coinciding with the previous statement O. Carlos Stoetzer an International critic thinks that it’s because “Bello was much influenced by the European thought of the age,” (Stoetzer), which in turn was highly available to Bello as opportunity rang around every corner, such as dealing with the French invasion and eventually living in England. Thus his writing style no doubt influential was itself influenced off European grasp on mainstream thought and styles. However uniquely he is able to keep his focus on his home land and present through this writing style and not allowing the “western” influences inhibit his relation to Venezuela. The Brooklyn drop it did not face the same acceptance in international criticism, for the most part was shot down by critics in hasty rejection because of his presentation of opinions.   William Michael Rossetti, London and John Camden Hotten destroy Walt Whitman with their criticism stating things like “that much of it was indescribably filthy, most of it mere incoherent rhapsody, none of it what could be termed poetry in any sense of the word, and that, unless at the hands of some enterprising Holywell Street publisher, it had no chance of the honour of an English reprint,” (Rossetti) or “and does not contain any of the pieces marked by that peculiar freedom of speech which is generally associated in men’s minds with the name of Walt Whitman,” (Rossetti). They found his style and techniques out this world horrifying continually bashing Whitman by saying “its present absurd notions about decency, morality, and propriety, could not be expected to receive “the indecencies scattered through Whitman’s writings,”(Hotten). Eventually they felt so passionately against Whitman’s diction in Leaves of Grass, that their insulting criticism became less structured and broken down into utterly shattering list, “hankering, gross, mystical, nude, one of the roughs, a kosmos, disorderly, fleshy, sensual, no more modest than immodest,” (Hotten). However unfortunately for Whitman they were not the only tough criticism he was going to receive outside the country. Attacking him directly calling him a “Walt Whitman the merely blatant egotist,” (Anonymous) and the most out of all the criticism found outside the country again went along side the lines of “you can light your pipe with it” (Rossetti). In fact the only good thing stated about Whitman’s literature was by a fellow New Yorker, who said that “its brilliant display of Whitman’s innovative techniques and original themes,” (Miller). Walt Whitman obvious faced great diversity in publishing his thoughts and theories the Leaves of Grass. Presentation was high quality according to his vast majority of European critics but it seems that the message behind it was of its own significance. Two writers form different environments, the United States and Latin America, two different societies, vocally present their beliefs on the non-human elements importance in poetic form. Contrasting writing styles one more accepted by foreign criticism then the other due to techniques prompted by location and personal background. Each writer facing rough hardship portrays a passionate desire for an escape which they found to be nature. How a single breathe in the midst of nature can reverse or eliminate the stresses mainstream society has overwhelmed individuals with.            BibliographyBello, Andres. Selected Writings of Andres Bello. New York: Oxford University
     Press, 1997.
James, Miller E. “Criticims: The Walt Whitman Encyclopedia.”
     http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/index.html.
     24 Apr. 2008 <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/
     encyclopedia/index.html>.
O. Carlos Stoetzer, “The Political Ideas of Andrés Bello.” International Philosophical Quarterly, 23, no. 4 (December 1983): 395-406. Price, Kenneth M. “Contemporary Views: Poems of Walt Whitman.”
     http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/index.html.
     24 Apr. 2008 <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/
     encyclopedia/index.html>.
Price, Kenneth M. “Contemporary Views: Leaves of Grass.”
     http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/index.html.
     24 Apr. 2008 <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/
     encyclopedia/index.html>.
Whitman, Walt. Walt Whitman’s Songs of Myself. New York: n.p., n.d.
William, Rossetti. “Contemporary Views: Walt Whitman.”
     http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/encyclopedia/index.html.
     24 Apr. 2008 <http://www.whitmanarchive.org/criticism/current/
     encyclopedia/index.html>.
  

The Bay

March 28th, 2008

Since I was a little boy

I’ve spent my summers at the Bay.

Surrounded by all that nature has to offer.

Crabbing for delicious blue crabs,

Fishing for plump rockfish,

Water skiing through the crashing waves.

As times moved  on things have changed.

The blue crabs are fewer and fewer,

The rockfish are seen less and less,

Water skiing is now a fond memory.

No matter what the Bay becomes

I’ll always remember what it was.

February 12th, 2008

Milton depicts a new twist on understanding nature compared to the previous writers, by emphasizing experience as knowing nature. Depicting the significance of social impact on shaping our environment and aquirring knowledge through communicating with others. Stating a strong urge for an experience with both the non-human and human world, combining them into a completely analyized evalution of personal ideals. Which in turn is an excellent idea of incorporating both perspectives and enabling the reader to be faced with a solid independent choice. In doing so it grants the audience freedom and doesn’t use the traditional dictation of what one should do or not doand how one should handle nature and express emotion. She mentions this sense of “personhood” in relating to things as humans gather knowledge and understanding, helping tools as it plays different ways to catalyst the bigger picture. There are different ways in interpreting personhood, whether its a sense of recongizing what it is to be human or the qualities of humans being a person. John Muir’s writings have an all natural mountain man prespective to the personal adventures he experienced at Yosemite. Though his direct experiences with nature I think qualifies him for the most considerable naturalist out of all the writers that we have crossed. His simplistic way of life within the confinds of the natural element allow his readers to capture his since of knowledge and understanding of the pure beauty it possesses.

February 5th, 2008

Emerson, Bello, and Whitman share a deep connection to personal experice in nature and the “non human world”. Whether its through the eyes of Emerson and the effect of experience as a reawakening through nature. Through Bello’s eyes of the reaping of the land for its agriculture importance in finding a nation. Also through Whitmans’s eyes of finding revalations in nature and gathering of lifes solutions. Using diction of as regenerative, medicinal, and embetterment to discribe and protray the significane of this so called experience in nature.

Having a consences  between a positive experience with nature drawels however an unequal representation of what is distinguished as modernization. Most mention the seperation of between self and society norms but Whitman takes a further more in depth approach in down playing the world industry and commerce. Declaring the passion he contains in not excepting the market based society, only leaving the advancements to acknowledgement and removing any significance they could possess in his life.

Emerson and Cooper

January 29th, 2008

Thoreau, Emerson, and Cooper discussed similar views on the importance of nature to society and how it ties into a sense of spiritual return. Granting society a chance to escape into the wilderness and connect with its surroundings which in turns also amplifies the urgent need to conserve the resources in the environment. Emerson describes this escape as true solitude, leaving behind all activities which occupy society’s day planners. Thoreau however takes it a step further by committing to what he preaches and lives out in nature in the area of Walden Pond. Both in their quest to leave behind the rest of the world experience a presence of sublime, capturing the emotions and imagination of two individuals upon a gaze. Emerson states that his sublime encounter was derived from the stars which shower the sky every night. Thoreau with a similar encounter found his moment of sublime to be depicted by the diversity of organisms and various elements that surround us in this world.  It happens that this overwhelming occurrence caused a correlation to God or a God like presences with in nature.

Cooper on the other hand takes a more bold and confronted approach to nature whereas Thoreau and Emerson focused on the appreciation. Her statements would ring outrage in her society only receiving sympathy for her male influence as her father also was a writer. These ambitious claims pin blame to the white man for the destruction of nature and goes in depth giving historical background. One example was the state of extinction faced by the Indians as the colonies forced the merging between two cultures, ultimately presenting two options submission or eviction. Continuing her rant that the evolution of humans and the depleting conditions to blame on a skin color and not a species.

Hello world!

January 21st, 2008

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